AN ANALYTICAL STUDY OF THE ROLE OF NGOs IN THE URBAN DEVELOPMENT OF SLUMS IN EGYPT (CASE STUDY OF ZEINHUM DEVELOPMENT PROJECT)
Keywords:NGOs, Urban Development, Slum
This paper looks at the different roles of NGO's in the urban development of slum areas. Due to the budget deficit by different countries, and the lack of private sector investment in the development of slums, the need has emerged for the participation of other parties in the urban development processes. In Egypt, the State has announced the year 2020, as the end of the unsafe slums; in fact, the role of NGOs is essential to grantee the sustainability of the development and renewal projects that took place during the last years.
The literature review investigated the NGOs' participation in various roles of the urban development in slums, followed by a discussion of lessons learned from international case studies that lead to NGOs active participation. The theoretical part of this paper, has applied inductive and analytical methods. Following the literature review, it discusses the definition of slums and informal areas internationally and nationally. In Egypt, The Informal Settlements Development Fund (ISDF) has classified the informal areas into unplanned and unsafe areas and has classified the unsafe areas into four degrees according to severity. The paper also examines the concept of urban development of the human settlements that suffer from social, economic, and urban problems. The paper also presents the historical background of the rise of NGOs role in the urban development in Egypt. The practical study relied on the case study of Zeinhum housing development project and evaluate its current situation in 2020. This project is one of the first Egyptian models in which an NGO (Egyptian red crescent) was a principal partner in the development project. In the research, a sample of the area residents was interviewed to identify the most critical problems in 2020. Moreover, the research has identified the current situation through several visits to the project during February and March of 2020.
The research found that NGOs' role is not a sole role; there is a need for a sustainable partnership with the local community, where NGOs are a partner and not the principal actor. The NGOs should support the relationship between the State and society by creating community-based groups, whose goal is self-monitoring, guaranteeing the durability of the upgrading projects.
Abouelmagd, D., and Sakr, Y., (2013), Facing the socio-economic crises after 2011 revolution: The Egyptian informal sector between housing policies, state partners and reality, 14th N-AERUS / GISDECO Conference, Urban Futures, Multiple Visions, Paths and Constructions, Enschede 12th to 14th September 2013, ISBN: 978-90-365-0747-9.
Abouelmagd, D., (2017b), Risks and Uncertainty in the Formal Solutions to the Informal Settlements in India, ARCHCAIRO7, 2017, 7th international conference on “Building Innovatively Interactive Cities, Horizons and Prospects”, Cairo University, Cairo (Egypt) 27 -29 March 2017, (pp. 107-129),
Abouelmagd, D. (2017a), Assessing the Aga Khan Conservation and Urban Revitalization Projects (The case studies of El-Darb El Ahmar in Cairo and The Humayun’s Tomb and Nizamuddin Basti in Delhi), The 1st International Conference on towards a Better Quality of Life, Red Sea, Gouna, (Egypt), 24-26 November 2017.
Adel , A. (2008). An analytical study of pattern of informal regions journal of engineering sciences. Journal of Engineering Sciences, Assiut University, Vol. 36, No. 1, pp. 233- 249.
Akdn . (2020). The Azhar Park Project in Cairo and the Conservation and Revitalisation of Darb al-Ahmar. Retrieved May 26, 2020 from
Alsharif, N. (2013). A case study of slum settlements in Jaddaah, Saudi Arabia, Thesis, ball state university. Muncie, Indiana.
Egyptian Cabinet of Ministers and ISDF (2010), Egyptian Approach to informal Settlements Development, Retrieved January 28, 2020 from: https://www.slideshare.net/GRFDavos/egypt-for-idrc-2-june-2010-finalpptx
Salvaris, M. (2000). Community and Social Indicators: How Citizens can Measure Progress. Institute for Social Research, Swinburne University of Technology.
Shoukry, M. (2013). Defining slums ('Ashwa'iyyat) in Egyptian Public Agenda-setting process, thesis, American University in Cairo. Dept. of Political Science.
Khalifa, M. (2015). Evolution of informal settlements upgrading strategies in Egypt: From negligence to participatory development, Thesis. Ain Shams Engineering Journal Volume 6, Issue 4, Pages 1151-1159 .
Habitat for humanity. (2020) What is a slum (Definition of a Global Housing Crisis of a Global Housing Crisis). Retrieved January 22, 2020 from https://www.habitatforhumanity.org.uk/what-we-do/slum-rehabilitation/what-is-a-slum/).
UN-Habitat, (2006-2007) state of the world cities, Report, Retrieved February 18, 2020 from https://mirror.unhabitat.org/documents/media_centre/sowcr2006/SOWCR%205.pdf
United Nations (2020a), Sustainable Development Goals. Retrieved Dec 18, 2019 from ( https://www.un.org/sustainabledevelopment/sustainable-development-goals/ ).
United Nations (2020b). Quito Conference on Housing and Sustainable Development. Retrieved Dec 22 , 2019 from (https://www.un.org/ar/chronicle/article/20093 ) .