Journal of Art & Architecture Research Studies - JAARS http://jaars-fa.helwan.edu.eg/index.php/FineArts <p><strong>JAARS</strong> is a semi-annual <em><strong>double-blind peer-reviewed</strong></em> scientific journal published by the Faculty of Fine Arts Cairo – Helwan University. It accepts for publication both languages: Arabic and English</p> <p>Online (<strong>ISSN 2535 - 2369</strong>) - Print (<strong>ISSN 2535-1508</strong>)</p> <p><a title="Call for Papers - Volume 1 - Issue 2" href="http://jaars-fa.helwan.edu.eg/index.php/FineArts/vol1_issue2">Call for Papers - Volume 1 - Issue 2 (click here)</a></p> <p><span class="oi732d6d ik7dh3pa d2edcug0 qv66sw1b c1et5uql a8c37x1j muag1w35 ew0dbk1b jq4qci2q a3bd9o3v knj5qynh oo9gr5id hzawbc8m" dir="auto"><strong><a title="Registration Process Guiding Movie in Arabic Language" href="https://youtu.be/_bORkNj6E2I">Registration Process Guiding Movie in the Arabic Language</a></strong> - <strong><a title="Paper Submission Guiding Movie in the Arabic Language" href="https://youtu.be/Zo2OYKBJ47A">Paper Submission Guiding Movie in the Arabic Language</a></strong></span></p> <p><span class="oi732d6d ik7dh3pa d2edcug0 qv66sw1b c1et5uql a8c37x1j muag1w35 ew0dbk1b jq4qci2q a3bd9o3v knj5qynh oo9gr5id hzawbc8m" dir="auto"><strong>Volume 1 Issue 1 : <span class="type">DOI: </span> <span class="id"> <a href="https://doi.org/10.47436/jaarsfa.v1i1"> https://doi.org/10.47436/jaarsfa.v1i1 </a></span><br /></strong></span></p> en-US a.abdel-hadi@jaars-fa.org (Prof. Dr. Aleya Abdel-Hadi) support@jaars-fa.org (Exp. Moukid Badie) Sun, 21 Jun 2020 00:00:00 +0000 OJS 3.2.1.1 http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/tech/rss 60 FEATURES OF THE CINEMATIC IMAGE IN FOLK EPICS AN ANALYTICAL STUDY FOR THE FILM OF “SHAFIQA AND METWALLY1978” http://jaars-fa.helwan.edu.eg/index.php/FineArts/article/view/45 <p><em>The story of “Shafiqa and Metwally” belongs to the Folk Loyal with epic features, which pushes the filmmakers to an artistic direction with a special character, which quickly turns into a cinematic model of a visual epic with an accumulated historical weight.<br /></em><em>The result of analytical study came with plastic arts values for the film scenes, for example, but not limited (primitive nature, which added to the image confusion between classic Islamic methods in the manuscripts and the spontaneous expression - hatred of emptiness and avoiding details - disregarding highlighting the rules of perspective - sparse distribution of colors in the aspects of frame to serve the epic conflict).</em></p> <p>Finally, this study was able to shed light on this type of films, which are plastic and aesthetic worth linked to the Egyptian and Arab identity, its role helping to maintain our heritage from extinction, also stimulates the possibility of taking the epic stories in contemporary cinematic work.</p> Fakhry Alazazzy Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of Art & Architecture Research Studies - JAARS http://jaars-fa.helwan.edu.eg/index.php/FineArts/article/view/45 Sun, 21 Jun 2020 00:00:00 +0000 THE HISTORICAL/ CULTURAL INFLUENCES ON STAR WARS CHARACTER QUEEN PADME COSTUME DESIGN http://jaars-fa.helwan.edu.eg/index.php/FineArts/article/view/22 <div> <p><em>The research is about the role of the costume designer and the extent of its effectiveness in achieving the balance between character design that reflects the ideals and goals of movie, and finding the appropriate reference, whether historical or civilized influence, through the design idea on which it is based. For example, the research was taken from the costume design of the star wars movie in a condition that applies to the elements of a suitable design and limited the analysis On Queen </em><em>Padmé</em><em> character from the series of star wars movies, the research mentioned </em><em>three</em><em> costumes that appeared during the film; throne room gown with its elements inspired in the creative process of design, the lake gown, and the travel gown with its details which Inspired by different civilizations like old historical Russian dress.</em></p> <p><em> </em></p> </div> Marwa Auda Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of Art & Architecture Research Studies - JAARS http://jaars-fa.helwan.edu.eg/index.php/FineArts/article/view/22 Sun, 21 Jun 2020 00:00:00 +0000 The Role of the German rulers in the transmission of the Italian Renaissance styles to the Sacral Architecture in Germany http://jaars-fa.helwan.edu.eg/index.php/FineArts/article/view/39 <p><em>Undoubtedly the building of the Jesuit College and St.Michael church are a turning point in the history of Bavaria as it contributed in emphasizing the position of the duke of Bavaria; AlbrechtIV, where it became his residency after uniting upper &amp; lower Bavaria. In addition to that his studies in Italy made him understand the beauty of the renaissance art &amp; the Humanism movement &amp; to spread its ideas in Europe with the help of Gutenberg who improved the printing process. His journey was completed by his Son AlbrechtV &amp; his Grandson WilhelmV by opening the Jesuit school &amp; in parallel a new understanding of Christianity appeared to serve the ideas of the Italian culture &amp; the Renaissance art which influenced the German culture which is obviously seen in St.Michael church whether in its interior or exterior designs.</em></p> <p><em>The research problem is summarized in discovering the role of the German rulers in the transmission of the Italian renaissance style to the sacral Architecture in Germany through a field study and if St.Michael’s church execution was due to certain social, cultural &amp; intellectual changes in the Bavarian society? Or was it to prove the strength &amp; position of the rulers at this time? Also, whether the Italian renaissance taste has an impact on the German sacral buildings or it followed its own path?</em></p> <p><em>Moreover, the research objective is to discover the role of the German rulers in the transmission of the Italian renaissance styles to the sacral architecture in Germany through a field study not only to unveil the reason of the late transmission of the renaissance art to Germany but also to high light the importance of the Artistic and intellectual position of Bavaria and how it was affected by the Italian renaissance art. Adding to that the effect of the protestant Reformation by Martin Luther on the late arrival of the renaissance art to Germany.</em></p> <p><em>Moreover; the research followed the historical and descriptive methodology in the sixteenth century in Europe and particularly in Munich, Germany.</em></p> <p><em>Finally, the conclusions show that the German renaissance art was influenced by the Italian renaissance art due to the relationships between the German &amp; Italian rulers. As seen in St.Michael church with its triumphal arches which reminds us with the ancient Romans. Also, the settling of the Italian artist in Germany and the German artists that studied in Italy are two important reasons of the spreading of the Italian Renaissance art in Germany.</em></p> <p><em>At last the research recommendations upon the conclusions are the importance of studying the German sacral art in details and to work on making Arabic references and make them available for the public and the Arabs living and visiting Germany. Finally, the researcher recommended the importance of completing the study of sacral art and architecture in different ages in Germany and to compare between them as a sort of historical and artistic documentation to be able to find out about the missing gaps in the history of these sacral buildings.</em></p> Sara Eltonsi Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of Art & Architecture Research Studies - JAARS http://jaars-fa.helwan.edu.eg/index.php/FineArts/article/view/39 Sun, 21 Jun 2020 00:00:00 +0000 AN ANALYTICAL STUDY OF THE ROLE OF NGOs IN THE URBAN DEVELOPMENT OF SLUMS IN EGYPT (CASE STUDY OF ZEINHUM DEVELOPMENT PROJECT) http://jaars-fa.helwan.edu.eg/index.php/FineArts/article/view/36 <p><em>This paper looks at the different roles of NGO's in the urban development of slum areas. Due to the budget deficit by different countries, and the lack of private sector investment in the development of slums, the need has emerged for the participation of other parties in the urban development processes. In Egypt, the State has announced the year 2020, as the end of the unsafe slums; in fact, the role of NGOs is essential to grantee the sustainability of the development and renewal projects that took place during the last years.</em></p> <p><em>The literature review investigated the NGOs' participation in various roles of the urban development in slums, followed by a discussion of lessons learned from international case studies that lead to NGOs active participation. The theoretical part of this paper, has applied inductive and analytical methods. Following the literature review, it discusses the definition of slums and informal areas internationally and nationally. In Egypt, The Informal Settlements Development Fund (ISDF) has classified the informal areas into unplanned and unsafe areas and has classified the unsafe areas into four degrees according to severity. The paper also examines the concept of urban development of the human settlements that suffer from social, economic, and urban problems. The paper also presents the historical background of the rise of NGOs role in the urban development in Egypt. The practical study relied on the case study of Zeinhum housing development project and evaluate its current situation in 2020. This project is one of the first Egyptian models in which an NGO (Egyptian red crescent) was a principal partner in the development project. In the research, a sample of the area residents was interviewed to identify the most critical problems in 2020. Moreover, the research has identified the current situation through several visits to the project during February and March of 2020.</em></p> <p><em>The research found that NGOs' role is not a sole role; there is a need for a sustainable partnership with the local community, where NGOs are a partner and not the principal actor. The NGOs should support the relationship between the State and society by creating community-based groups, whose goal is self-monitoring, guaranteeing the durability of the upgrading projects.</em></p> Sally Hassan, Doaa Abouelmagd, Eman Faiez Maher Bassily Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of Art & Architecture Research Studies - JAARS http://jaars-fa.helwan.edu.eg/index.php/FineArts/article/view/36 Sun, 21 Jun 2020 00:00:00 +0000 The Digital Revolution and Ideologies of Thought and Creativity in Graphic Arts http://jaars-fa.helwan.edu.eg/index.php/FineArts/article/view/27 <p><em>What the scientific tide and digital revolution presented of methods and ideas for the structural and aesthetic construction of the workspace is what we will notice in this research by standing on one of the contemporary arts, which I borrowed from the digitization, which is the digital art that means the set of means that a person uses to reach a dramatic result using the computer Automated, The researcher has developed an equation to elicit the aesthetic concept of graphic artwork through the digital media used (digital art x digital environment) =the resulting digital product=new visual values, digitization has become as a technique in graphic arts based on digital materials, as the French philosopher "Pierre Levy" explains, and the researcher here represents "Art project”, ”Augmented reality” interactive application, shown at Venice biennale 56th, Egyptian pavilion as a practical Methods of the research in those digital experiments.</em></p> Gamal ElDin Elkheshen Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of Art & Architecture Research Studies - JAARS http://jaars-fa.helwan.edu.eg/index.php/FineArts/article/view/27 Sun, 21 Jun 2020 00:00:00 +0000 THE IMPORTANCE OF ILLUSTRATIONS IN EXPLAINING THE PRESS CONTENT BICAR & CANAAN AS AN EXAMPLE http://jaars-fa.helwan.edu.eg/index.php/FineArts/article/view/48 <p><em>The research deals with the importance of illustrations in the press work as an essential part that helps in highlighting the content of an article, story, or editorial investigation. The study focuses on newspapers and magazines graphic illustrations and their prominent role in communicating the type of journal and/ or magazine whether it being political, social, or specialized. In Egypt, graphics began to occupy distinctive places in the front pages of newspapers and magazines, starting with black and white, then an additional color, followed by four colors. The first issue of Al-Ahram newspaper was in 1876, and in the same year, an illustrated magazine for literature and fine arts was issued and it was called "the magazine of women and men"; there was also ‘caricature journalism’ or ‘comics’. The graphic artists contributed to the rise of the Egyptian press and its brilliance through the illustrations they presented to express the topics, stories and press stories .It can be said that the technical and comic press in Egypt started from one starting point, or stemmed from one cell that carried its features together, before the specialization stage related to the maturity of the technical level.</em></p> <p><em>The research includes the reference to pioneer newspapers and magazines in Egypt that contributed greatly in the propagation of graphic illustrations and helped in its accession to a prominent place in the press work; in Dar Akhbar Al-Youm, artists such as Rakha, Saroukhan, Bicar, Canaan, Mustafa Hussein and others, represent a good example. In this paper, the author selected two of the previously stated artists: Hussein Bicar and Mounir Canaan, for an in-depth study. They characterize the press illustration in Egypt during a period of forty years – from the fifties to the beginning of the nineties. Hussein Bicar has his unique style in illustrations for adult and for children books and magazines; he left a legacy of outstanding drawings and writings; his academic study at Fine Arts in Cairo helped him to master the art of painting and to take interest in the anatomical aspect. On the other hand, Mounir Canaan did not get any academic education in art, yet, he advanced in the field of illustrations and painting in ink.</em></p> <p><em>In sum, the author sees that this art is not as prominent and high level nowadays as it was in the study period; therefore, he recommends that Newspaper and magazine operators should search for, and employ talented artists like before in drawing illustrations, to add an aesthetic dimension to journalistic work, thus help creating a relationship between the newspaper and the reader. Newspapers should devote space to painters to show their illustrative talents in fixed columns weekly as illustrations enrich journalism beyond what photographic images currently do. </em></p> طارق عبد العزيز محمود حسنين Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of Art & Architecture Research Studies - JAARS http://jaars-fa.helwan.edu.eg/index.php/FineArts/article/view/48 Sun, 21 Jun 2020 00:00:00 +0000 SO THAT URBANISM ATTENDS TO LIFE AND HUMANS http://jaars-fa.helwan.edu.eg/index.php/FineArts/article/view/52 <p>The article calls for transforming urban and architectural concept into a tool for attending to life and humans, instead of being the current destructive agent for the ecosystem, human survival, and prosperity in the long run. The article’s contents are presented as follow:</p> <ul> <li>The current urban situation, which includes general cultural conditions in capitalist and industrial societies, that led to the current state of urban and architectural thought, as well as its essential features.</li> <li>Urbanism that attends to life and humans and includes the cultural conditions that must be met for that purpose. It also includes what is meant by "urbanism of life and human" and what it must achieve.</li> <li>The required effect of creating urbanism of life and humans in the fields of general urban and architectural awareness for citizens; urban and architecture education; scientific research and theorization; urban and architectural criticism and enhancement; setting standards and foundations for design fundamentals and enactment of urban and architectural legislation; urban planning and design; and, management of the built environment.</li> <li>The required effect of creating an urban and human life in the concepts of "heritage," "originality," "contemporary," "architectural and architectural identity," "creativity," "the role of advanced technology in urban and architectural production," and "economics in urbanism."</li> </ul> Yehia Abdallah Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of Art & Architecture Research Studies - JAARS http://jaars-fa.helwan.edu.eg/index.php/FineArts/article/view/52 Sun, 21 Jun 2020 00:00:00 +0000 INTERIOR ARCHITECTURE – FUNCTION & CREATIVITY http://jaars-fa.helwan.edu.eg/index.php/FineArts/article/view/54 <p><em>The research is exposed to the definition of design in general and the design of interior architecture, together with the role of man as a creative creator of interior design. It also addresses the logical and philosophical concept of design, problems as tributary of creativity and what is the design concept. Then, the research reviewed some of the documented definitions of the design process and how to organize interior spaces and then moved on the formation in the structural dimension and the role of technology in the implementation of design ideas and finally the role of creativity in interior architecture.</em></p> Nabil Rashed Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of Art & Architecture Research Studies - JAARS http://jaars-fa.helwan.edu.eg/index.php/FineArts/article/view/54 Sun, 21 Jun 2020 00:00:00 +0000 MONUMENTAL SCULPTURE BETWEEN RANDOMNESS AND PLANNING http://jaars-fa.helwan.edu.eg/index.php/FineArts/article/view/51 <p>The article deals with how to plan for monumental sculpture. The problem arises when the artwork is placed without an awareness of visual perception and the surrounding factors of movement, light, and color. The aim is to discuss the problem and to determine the conditions and specifications that must be considered when choosing a place and planning for a memorial. <br />The article is a translated summary from the book "The Monuments and the City" by the Russian Architect V. A. Artamanov (1974). Its content is that monumental sculptures or memorials are both an art and a science. The statues in public squares must be made available to the public so that it can be appreciated and enjoyed in both form and objective terms. There are conditions and specifications that affects the aesthetic values of the memorial, the most important of which are: the effect of spatial conditions on the visual perception of form solutions and composition, natural lighting and geographical latitude at day time and the nature of light, as well as determining the volume, the distance of vision, and the clarity of the monumental work, environment, and location. All of this must be considered when creating memorials that are an organic part of the place and the environment.</p> Mohammad Alalawy Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of Art & Architecture Research Studies - JAARS http://jaars-fa.helwan.edu.eg/index.php/FineArts/article/view/51 Sun, 21 Jun 2020 00:00:00 +0000 COLOR USAGE AS TOOL OF CODING AND CLASSIFICATION IN INTERIOR ARCHITECTURE http://jaars-fa.helwan.edu.eg/index.php/FineArts/article/view/49 <p><em>Based on three main causes this paper intends to </em><em>motivate interior architecture designers</em> <em>to</em> <em>utilize color as coding tool to be more feasible. First cause: the potential capability of color as powerful element of interior architecture with distinguish relation between human and objects. Second cause: the rapid developments of our contemporary life, which generate enormous items need to be classified. Third cause: the domain of using color as means of coding requires more awareness in spite the existence</em> <em>of many studies and application covering many aspects of color uses and explaining the role color plays in our lives. The paper will investigate types of architecture spaces that more compatible with color</em> <em>coding concepts, likely to enforce interior architectural design like healthcare and educational facilities, industrial projects. The paper will expose to recognize case to</em><em> confirm</em><em> the</em> <em>necessity of using </em><em>color</em><em> as</em><em> coding tool</em><em>. </em><em>Important recommendations and consideration will be indicated.</em></p> Heba-Tallah Hamdy Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of Art & Architecture Research Studies - JAARS http://jaars-fa.helwan.edu.eg/index.php/FineArts/article/view/49 Sun, 21 Jun 2020 00:00:00 +0000 INTEGRATION BETWEEN THE INTERIOR SPACES SURROUNDING THE EXTERNAL ENVIRONMENT BY USING MODERN METHODS OF INDUSTRIAL LIGHTING SYSTEMS http://jaars-fa.helwan.edu.eg/index.php/FineArts/article/view/40 <p><em>The sun is the main source of daylight, so it is necessary to make use of it as much as possible in the interior spaces, mainly in dim spaces to save energy. The problem occurs in houses surrounded by high buildings that block sunlight/ daylight. To overcome this issue the study presents a modern technology that provides the following two methods:</em></p> <ul> <li><em>The first method is Parans solar panels.</em></li> <li><em>The second method is the solar tubes that allow polarizing sunlight.</em></li> </ul> <p><em>The research method is a descriptive approach that clarifies the components of modern technological systems and guarantees the role of the interior designer in lighting dim spaces, as well as the importance of daylight in reducing the demand for industrial energy. The first method of modern technology is the Parans plate system, which are lenses that follow the mechanisms of the sun to reflect light in interior dark areas. Those plates are attached and fixed to the ceiling by lens, then directed inside a building using optical fibers; they are also equipped with sensors that allow automatic movement depending on the movement of the sun. This system is installed on surfaces or façades to allow architectural integration. As for the second proposed method, the solar tubes that allow polarization of sunlight by a dome made of polyethylene and aluminum tube coated from the inside with highly reflective materials.</em></p> <p><em>The following results are concluded from the study:</em></p> <ol> <li><em>It is easy to link interior spaces to the exterior surrounding environment with the use of modern methods.</em></li> <li><em>Solar tubes and other reflective systems have long allowed daylight to pass to the lower levels of the basement interior.</em></li> <li><em>Solar tubes vary in areas (elastic - solid), all of which are subject to the idea of introducing natural lighting and the longer the length of the solar tubes, the lesser the reflections.</em></li> </ol> <p><em>Therefore, the author recommends introducing natural lighting into dark interior spaces by developing a production of other new systems in addition to the herewith studied Parans panels and solar tubes.</em></p> Hadeel Maher Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of Art & Architecture Research Studies - JAARS http://jaars-fa.helwan.edu.eg/index.php/FineArts/article/view/40 Sun, 21 Jun 2020 00:00:00 +0000 A SUGGESTED FRAMEWORK FOR RE-USING AN ANTIQUE VALUABLE BUILDING IN ADMINISTRATIVE USE http://jaars-fa.helwan.edu.eg/index.php/FineArts/article/view/38 <p><em>Many historic buildings can be adapted to new functions without ruining their historical character. As the government is willing to move out of the old Cairo, which will cause a number of, vacated antique palaces. Moreover, the government seeks to increase its resources by re-exploiting the government’s assets and establishing a sovereign fund for this purpose. Therefore, the Rehabilitation of old antique residential buildings to suits a new purpose such as administrative or commercial uses might be the perfect action to take. That’s why this research aims to highlight these challenges, which face the interior architect and defines how to overcome them throw a strategic framework which ensures taking advantage of contemporary technology and materials. While, preserving its value, through following the descriptive-analytical method in researching and studying of the administrative building of the Faculty of Fine Arts in Zamalek which was a villa owned by the famous businessman Ahmed Abboud Pasha.</em></p> Engy Al - Ashqar Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of Art & Architecture Research Studies - JAARS http://jaars-fa.helwan.edu.eg/index.php/FineArts/article/view/38 Sun, 21 Jun 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Effect of Different Style Elements on Student's Identity In the Design http://jaars-fa.helwan.edu.eg/index.php/FineArts/article/view/23 <p><em>The Egyptian heritage a home for great civilizations that identified it with special heritage elements giving rise to several aesthetic and visual values. These days, such identity has been fading out due to the western conception that overwhelmed the Egyptian one.</em><br /><em>Because of the importance of the studio in influencing and developing concepts and ideas, together with the development of the students' acquired skills so a full presentation and elucidation of heritage elements, as well as modern trends and effects on individuals, are explained. Additionally, these elements are utilized to attain a design model that has an impact on the student's creative thinking development.</em><br /><em>This research aims to monitor modern visions and trends in the internal design anticipated through measuring the extent by attaching the students' attention and affect their design trend towards coming up with such designs that bear sings of heritage and creativity elements.</em></p> Hala Elnaggar Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of Art & Architecture Research Studies - JAARS http://jaars-fa.helwan.edu.eg/index.php/FineArts/article/view/23 Sun, 21 Jun 2020 00:00:00 +0000 THE HUMAN-HEADED BIRD FIGURE IN PAINTING FROM THE BRONZE AGE TO EARLY TWENTIETH CENTURY. http://jaars-fa.helwan.edu.eg/index.php/FineArts/article/view/47 <p><em>The avian humanoids always seemed like fantastical creatures that mediate between heaven and earth by having human and avian features together. They mostly referred to the souls lingering between the living and the divine. There are many types of them, and this paper is specifically concerned about the human-headed bird imagery; and how it is depicted in different ways and what are their symbolic meanings in many cultures. This specific imagery appeared in many different mythologies along history; such as the ‘Ba’ in the Ancient Egyptian, ‘Sirens’ and ‘Harpies’ in the Greek and the Byzantium, the ‘Humayun’ in the Mesopotamian and perhaps in the Islamic too; and eventually, the ‘Alkonost’, the ‘Sirin’, and the ‘Gamayun’ in the Slavic mythology. An analytical comparative study of this imagery in different mythologies and in the paintings by different artists, such as P. Rubens, J. Pasch, V. Vasnetsov, and M. Vrubel; will be followed.</em></p> Rania Elhelw Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of Art & Architecture Research Studies - JAARS http://jaars-fa.helwan.edu.eg/index.php/FineArts/article/view/47 Sun, 21 Jun 2020 00:00:00 +0000 ENVISIONING URBAN TOURISM SUSTAINABILITY IN CULTURAL HERITAGE DESTINATIONS http://jaars-fa.helwan.edu.eg/index.php/FineArts/article/view/31 <p class="Resourceedings-Abstractbody"><em>Cultural heritage treasures are vital aspects for sustainable urban development, where it increases considerably in historical destinations, attracting urban tourism. However, while increasing urban tourism seems to be economic backbone for certain cities, it is also responsible for a continuous increase in environment degradation due to tourists’ rising expectation for services. The structure of this research is first to present the general overview of sustainable urban tourism, second it studies the most related literature on the topics of resident’s involvement and their attitude. Subsequently, it highlights challenges facing urban tourism both community related and managerial, and finally proposing a road map to achieve sustainability. Generally, this paper is a step towards a deeper understanding of sustainable urban tourism in heritage destination through bottom-up approach, especially in developing countries. It also gives relevant insights to both researchers and practitioners to effectively involve and collaborate with all stakeholders.</em></p> Marize M. Ramzy, Ahmed A. Morsi Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of Art & Architecture Research Studies - JAARS http://jaars-fa.helwan.edu.eg/index.php/FineArts/article/view/31 Sun, 21 Jun 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Assessing the Egyptian Public Housing Policies and Governance Modes (1952-2020), Towards Achieving a Sustainable Integrated Urban Approach http://jaars-fa.helwan.edu.eg/index.php/FineArts/article/view/11 <p><em>Public housing provision is one of the most urgent problems in Egypt; over the last 70 years, the leading provider was the state, problems were coping with the high demand, as well as the quality of the units concerning household's requirements.<br /></em><em>This paper discusses and analyzes the development of the international housing policies for low-income categories, from direct provision to sustainable integrated approach, compared to Egypt's public housing policies, governance modes during the last 70 years. This paper divides this period into four main phases according to the state political and </em><em>economic</em><em> approach</em><em> in each phase, </em><em>starting with the first intention for public housing projects through socialism, passing by the open door policy, capitalism, and the variety of housing schemes. Finally, the state initiatives after 2011 through the national social housing program. </em></p> Hager Abdel-Rahman, Yasser Elsayed, Doaa Abouelmagd Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of Art & Architecture Research Studies - JAARS http://jaars-fa.helwan.edu.eg/index.php/FineArts/article/view/11 Sun, 21 Jun 2020 00:00:00 +0000